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You will want to know how to recognise which toilet is for your sex and how to read the characters "public toilet". You don't have to be able to read Chinese - it is pattern recognition. Stare at the male and female a while, or copy them repeatedly on paper. Carry them with you and look at them while waiting in a line.
Chinese language character for Female Toilets in China
"" is the character for female. It is said to resemble the figure of a woman.
Chinese language character for male Toilets in China
"Nan" is the character for male. Note the stocky build and big head.

"Gong cuo" literally translates as "public toilet". You might see it on a sign post at an intersection or the side of a bathroom looking building. There are actually plenty of public toilets in Beijing if you keep you eyes open.

Most hotels and restaurants will have a toilet. Hutongs (old alleyways) also frequently have public toilets as many residents will not have toilets in their homes, only buckets for nighttime and elderly. If you are on a main street it may help to walk down an alley if you are in search of a toilet.

There are two flavours of toilets, "western style" and "Asian style". Westerners sit and Asians squat. Do be prepared to do some squatting as sometimes there is no choice. 

public toilets in China for the 2008 Olympicspublic restroom facilities in China

Keep your small change handy as sometimes there can be a fee of one Renminbi or less which is to pay the workers to keep it clean, etc, etc. The toilet on the right cost 0.2 Yuan which is two jiao (twenty cents). The word "mao" is often used for "jiao" when spoken. Below you see the one jiao note - at the above toilet you'd pay two of these:

Chinese currency 2008 Olympic Games
1 jiao (mao) front
2008 Olympic Games - money in China
1 jiao (mao) back
toilet paper in China

источник: http://www.thebeijingguide.com/toilets/chinese_toilets.html